So how do I outline? Well, the plot-based part of an outline is rather straightforward. Once I write a brief paragraph summary for each chapter, I lay them out in a chronological line to see where the climax, resolution, inciting incident, etc. fall. This gives me a visual of the novel's pacing. The inciting incident should occur within the first thirty pages, and the climax, generally, happens about 3/4 of the way through the book. There are definitely exceptions to this rule, but it's nice to see your novel laid out in front of you.
Secondly, I work on character sketches. I'd say these are the most important. Write out all pertinent information, including age, physical characteristics, family, friends, hobbies, dreams, goals, secrets, primary emotions, and reactions. Reactions are of the utmost importance.....how does this character react to different situations? Try writing at least one scene from the viewpoint of each of your major characters, even if the book itself isn't from their point of view. This will help you get a sense of their voice.
Lastly, relationships. I do at least a page of outlining for every relationship between every major character, whether it's a friendly relationship, a familial relationship, or a romance. When I finally start writing, these pages are a guideline as to how characters will interact with one another.
So there's my outlining process. For those of you who do outline, do you deviate from my method? Any tricks to share?